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genistein
Risun Bio-Tech Inc  Apr 18, 2016

   Genistein and is found in a number of plants including lupin, fava beans, soybeans, kudzu, and psoralea being the primary food sourc, also in the medicinal plants, Flemingia vestita and F. macrophylla, and coffee. It can also be found in Maackia amurensis cell cultures.

Extraction and purification
    Most of the genistein in plants are present in a glycosylated form. The unglycosylated aglycones can be obtained through various means such as treatment with the enzyme β-glucosidase, acid treatment of soybeans followed by solvent extraction, or by chemical synthesis. Acid treatment is a harsh method as concentrated inorganic acids are used. Both enzyme treatment and chemical synthesis are costly. A more economical process consisting of fermentation for in situ production of β-glucosidase to isolate genistein has been recently investigated.

Biological effects
    Besides functioning as antioxidant and anthelmintic, many genistein have been shown to interact with animal and human estrogen receptors, causing effects in the body similar to those caused by the hormone estrogen. genstein also produce non-hormonal effects.

Molecular function
Genistein influences multiple biochemical functions in living cells:

  1,full agonist of ERβ (EC50 = 7.62 nM) and, to a much lesser extent (~20-fold), full agonist[11] or partial agonist of ERα
  2,agonist of GPER (GPR30)
  3,activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)
  4,inhibition of several tyrosine kinases
  5,inhibition of topoisomerase
  6,inhibition of AAAD
  7,direct antioxidation with some proxidative features
  8,activation of Nrf2 antioxidative response
  9,stimulation of autophagy
 10,inhibition of the mammalian hexose transporter GLUT1
 11,contraction of several types of smooth muscles
 12,modulation of CFTR channel, potentiating its opening at low concentration and inhibiting it a higher doses.
 13,inhibition of cytosine methylation
 14,inhibition of DNA methyltransferase
 15,inhibition of the glycine receptor